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White Clover

White clover is widely distributed, especially in cool temperate climates. The plant has stolons or creeping stems near the soil surface. Leaves, flowers, and roots grow directly from these stolons. It is a relatively short plant with indeterminate growth, although taller types can grow up to 25 cm (10 in).The common or white Dutch is small and low growing, while the large type (e.g., Ladino) can be four times larger than the common type. Intermediate types have characteristics that are a mix of the two forms, and are commonly used for pasture.

Fringe Bromegrass

Fringed bromegrass is a tall, loosely tufted, cool season, perennial native bunchgrass. It is effective for erosion control and valued in revegetation mixes for disturbed sites. This species is also very palatable for both ungulate wildlife and livestock throughout the growing season.

Fringed bromegrass is a bunchgrass with fibrous roots.

Stems grow to 60 to 100 cm (24 to 39 in.) tall, frequently with hairy nodes. Leaves are dark green, 10 cm (4 in.) wide and hairy at least on one side. The veining is prominent on both sides of the leaf. No auricles. 

Canada Bluegrass

Canada bluegrass is a widely adapted, cool season, non-native, perennial grass. It has many characteristics similar to Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), except for its distinctive blue-green leaf colour and flat leaf shape. It has a role as an early colonizer or pioneer species, especially on disturbed sites with low fertility and moderate acidity.

Red Clover

Red clover is an introduced, commonly grown, tap-rooted, short-lived perennial legume. It can thrive in cooler temperatures and more acidic soils than alfalfa. It has deep tap roots that develop from a shallow, narrow crown, though not as deep as alfalfa, therefore reducing its drought tolerance.

Pinegrass

Pinegrass is a native perennial adapted to dry woodlands and open slopes. This grass is erect, tufted, and often forms complete ground cover.

The root system forms fibrous roots and long, extensive, creeping rhizomes. Extensive roots form thick sod, therefore making pinegrass an important soil protection species.

Orchardgrass

Orchardgrass is a very productive, highly palatable, perennial bunchgrass. Root systems are extensive and fibrous with a distinctive bunch growth. Crowns increase in size over time through tiller production.

Stems are 100 cm (39 in.) tall or more, and are distinctive in their flattening near the soil surface. Lots of basal leaves are produced, with smooth, folded leaves. Young leaves have boat-like tips, while older leaves have pointed tapered tips. Leaves are light green to blue green and up to 1 cm (3/8 in.) in width.

Alsike Clover

Alsike clover is a fast-growing, short-lived perennial clover, intermediate between white and red clover. Most commonly, diploid varieties are grown in Western Canada, but there are also tetraploid types (double the number of chromosomes with taller plants, larger leaves, and flowers).

Dahurian Wildrye

Dahurian wildrye is a short-lived, shallow-rooted perennial bunchgrass native to Siberia, Mongolia, and China. “James” and “Arthur” are two varieties developed and registered for use in Canada.

Meadow Bromegrass

Meadow bromegrass is a hardy, long-lived, high-yielding, cool season perennial grass. It regrows very quickly after grazing, even late in the season. Meadow bromegrass has fibrous roots and short rhizomes which spread slowly.

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is the most widely used perennial, cool season agronomic legume, and is adapted to many regions and uses. It is palatable for livestock but can cause bloat if not managed carefully.

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